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Evidence-Based Practices for Christian Counseling and Psychotherapy
edited by Everett L. Worthington, Jr., Ph.D, Eric L. Johnson, Ph.D,
and Joshua N. Hook, Ph.D, and Jamie D. Aten, Ph.D. 2013.
(InterVarsity Press Academic, Downers Grove, IL). All rights reserved.
[Answer 21 of 30 questions correctly to receive
15 hours of Continuing Education credit.]

Chapter 2: Evidence-Based Relationship and Therapist Factors in Christian Counseling and Psychotherapy (p. 25-39)
1. O'Connor and Vandenberg (2005) found that secular psychotherapists tend to ___ the religious beliefs of their clients.
a. respect
b. minimize
c. pathologize
d. support

2. Which is NOT true regarding the relationship between Christian psychotherapists and their religious clients?
a. Clients with less trait resistance respond better to more directive forms of psychotherapy.
b. Clients who are highly resistant to change respond better to nondirective therapists.
c. Clients who have external coping styles will respond with more behavioral or symptom-focused technique.
d. Client resistance to change is always caused by client pathology.

Chapter 3: Lay Christian Counseling for General Psychological Problems (p. 49-58)
3. The Stephen Ministry, a Christian care-giving program developed by Kenneth Haugk in 1975, is an example of which type of lay Christian counseling?
a. Active-listening approach
b. Cognitive and solution-focused approach
c. Inner-healing approach
d. Mixed approach

4. An adequate training program for lay Christian counselors in a local church should include
a. basic Bible knowledge and the role-playing of counseling skills.
b. understanding common psychological problems such as depression, anxiety, stress and spiritual dryness.
c. how the law and ethics applies to lay counseling, including confidentiality and how to make a referral.
d. All of the above.

Chapter 4: Christian Devotional Meditation for Anxiety (p. 59-76)
5. Which is NOT characteristic of doing a Scriptural Truth Meditation on a Biblical Passage?
a. Pick a brief Scripture passage that can be repeated in one exhale or two exhales, such as Psalm 23:1 "The Lord is my shepherd." and "I shall not want." Receive the truth about God in one's heart rather than studying it analytically.
b. Sit in a comfortable position with all communication devices turned off.
c. Quietly reflect on the passage, pondering its meaning and how its message is expressed in your life.
d. Your mind should not wander. If it does, it means you are not focusing intently enough on the passage.

6. Which is NOT true?
a. During a Christian Devotional Meditation (CDM), a client cough, change in posture, facial tensing, or scratching may suggest client discomfort. The clinician should explore this for any negative images of God.
b. Just like in many eastern meditation practices, Christians empty their minds of all content during Christian Devotional Meditation.
c. With trauma clients, Christian counselors should utilize Scripture Truth Meditation rather than CCPMA because Christ-centered Present Moment Awareness could trigger flashbacks.
d. Mindfulness involves increasing one's awareness of thoughts, feelings, and bodily sensations.

Chapter 5: Christian-Accommodative Cognitive Therapy for Depression (.p. 81-100)
7. Which is NOT true about Christian-accommodative CBT.
a. Establishing initial rapport is not as important as initial goal-setting.
b. Events themselves do not cause emotional distress, but rather the automatic thoughts and beliefs about those events that determine our emotional reactions.
c. Help clients gain greater awareness of their thoughts, especially those thoughts that are contrary to the teachings of Scripture, and are causing depressive symptoms.
d. Teach clients to modify, dispute, or replace dysfunctional thoughts with ones that correspond to Scriptural teaching, such as "I am a person of value and worth bestowed by God.".

8. What does NOT usually take place during Christian-accommodative CBT for depressive symptoms?
a. Setting specific, measurable goals.
b. Reviewing previously assigned homework.
c. Assisting the client to identify and replace distorted thinking and beliefs.
d. Having the therapist set the agenda for the session, not the client.


Chapter 6: Christian-Accommodative Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Children and Adolescents (p. 101-121)

9. Which is NOT true?
a. Today TF-CBT is arguably the most empirically supported treatment method for children and teens who have been victims of childhood and sexual abuse.
b. In Christian-accommodative TF-CBT, the therapist might assess for potential damage to a client's faith, such as a client's anger toward God for allowing the abuse to occur, where God was during the trauma, and client difficulty in believing that God still loves them.
c. Because of their short attention span, children usually don't respond well to progressive muscle relaxation and focused breathing training.
d. Children can learn to identify their feelings by choosing different colors for different feelings. They also can be taught to stop certain thoughts by singing a song they enjoy.
e. Children can be taught that their thoughts determine their feelings and their behavior.
f. Children often describe their trauma by drawing what happened in a scene-by-scene format.
g. Abuse is never a child's fault.
h. In vivo sensitization gradually exposes the child to anxiety-provoking scenarios while helping the child practice relaxation.
i. Calling "911" on the telephone and identifying a trusted neighbor to go to are just two ways children can insure their safety in future potentially abusive situations.

10. David was a 7-year-old boy who had been sexually abused by a neighborhood friend. During the assessment phase of the Christian-accommodative TF-CBT, David
a. questioned why God didn't stop the abuse.
b. said he could "rest in the shadow of God's wings" since he viewed God as an eagle.
c. drew a picture of God.
d. quoted a verse of Scripture.

Chapter 7: Evidence-Based Principles from Psychodynamic and Process-Experiential Psychotherapies (p. 122-145)
11. In Phase 1 of accessing and allowing emotional experience, experiential therapy proceeds according to the principle that all feelings should be attended to, but not all feelings should be
a. identified.
b. accepted.
c. acted on.
d. expressed.

12. During Phase 2 of relational processing and making sense of emotional experience, when an intense emotional experience emerges in the session, the therapist should shift the focus to ___ which helps clients integrate and regulate their affect

a. experiential, verbal processing of that upsetting reaction

b. a different subject altogether
c. calming their clients down
d. preserving the bond between therapist and client

13. In Phase 3 of transformation and restructuring on emotional experience, what takes place during the empty chair technique?
a. The client experiences first anger toward the "person" in the empty chair, and then experiences sadness for unfulfilled needs.
b. Full resolution could result if the person represented by the empty chair takes responsibility and apologizes for contributing to the unfulfilled needs of the client, or if the client forgives the person.
c. Partial resolution may result from the client setting a boundary with the person in the empty chair.
d. All of the above.

14. Insight-oriented, relationship-focused interventions are most likely to be more effective with individuals who have an internalized coping style (tend to internalize blame, be introverted, and cope by turning inward).
a. True
b. False

Chapter 8: Preparing Couples for Marriage (p.149-165)
15. According to research, one-half of all serious marital problems develop within the first ___ years of marriage.
a. two
b. four
c. seven
d. ten

16. Les and Leslie Parrott's SYMBIS model is shaped by Bowen's Family Systems Theory, which promotes true marital intimacy through strengthening self-differentiation. A self-differentiated spouse says:
a. "I'll do whatever it takes to make you happy."
b. "Let's not disagree with each other."
c. "I won't do anything that makes you angry."
d. "I'll do whatever my values, principles, and convictions tell me to do."

17. Which of the following is NOT included in Les and Leslie Parrott's SYMBIS model (Saving Your Marriage Before It Starts)?
a. Establishing rapport with each couple and constructing a family genogram for each person.
b. Using an exercise called "Your Personal Ten Commandments" in order to expose common marital myths such as, "My spouse will make me a whole person.
c. Reading Gary Chapman's book "The Five Love Languages".
d. Each partner defines love by selecting from a list of 12 attributes: acceptance, caring, commitment, concern for the other's well-being, friendship, honesty, interest in the other, loyalty, respect, supportiveness, trust, and wanting to be with the other.
e. Having each partner listen to their self-talk in order to choose a proper attitude instead of blame, self-pity, and resentment.
f. Helping each partner to listen to the emotions of the other, and then reflect that feeling back to their partner.
g. Understanding gender differences.
h. Each partner telling the other two things they appreciate about what the other did in the past 2 days.
i Discerning their expectations about praying together, church attendance, paying a tithe, etc.
j. Summarizing a couple's strengths and areas for growth.
k. Assigning an older married couple to mentor younger couples for one year.

Chapter 9: Christian PREP: The Prevention and Relationship Enhancement Program (p. 166-188)

18. Which is NOT true?
a. PREP is one of the most extensively researched approaches in the history of relationship education.
b. To date, PREP is the only relationship education curriculum listed in the US Government's SAMHSA National Registry of Evidence Programs and Practices.
c. Christian PREP places more emphasis on finding the right person to marry rather than developing effective communication skills.
d. Christian PREP includes such Christian themes as forgiveness, prayer, and making specific, regular sacrifices for each other.


19. Which is NOT true about Christian PREP?
a. If more Christians would carefully read the Scriptures on a daily basis, they would acquire the necessary skills for effective martial communication.
b. One goal of Christian PREP is to help couples talk without fighting or escalation.
c. Christian PREP helps couples create an atmosphere of emotional safety when they talk to each other.
d. Christian PREP helps couples maintain a positive connection to each other through friendship, fun, spirituality, and sensuality.

20. In the case study, Bob did not want their 16-year old daughter to get her driver's license right away because she was an unsafe driver. Mary thought she was a safe driver and should get her license. Christian PREP helped them resolve this by
a. reaching a compromise and having their daughter wait several months before she got her license.
b. repeatedly pointing out their negative communication patterns of withdrawal, escalation, negative interpretations, and invalidation of the other.
c. teaching them to understand and reconnect with one another through the speaker/listener technique.
d. using statistical education to show Mary how waiting for her daughter to get her driver's license would result in a higher probability of safety for herself and others..

Chapter 10: The Hope-Focused Couples Approach to Counseling and Enrichment (p. 189-208)
21. Which is NOT a characteristic of the hope-focused couples approach?
a. Requiring couples to take a course in Christian theology.
b. Using a short-term approach to treatment (5 to 20 sessions).
c. Asking one's spouse for forgiveness after causing a relationship injury.
d Each spouse striving to be a more virtuous person.

22. In the case study, Mitchell and Rebecca were asked to stand apart from each other in a way that demonstrated how close they feel to each other. Then they were asked to stand how close they would like to be with each other at the end of counseling. This technique is called
a. TANGO
b. Scaling
c. Empty chair
d. Sculpting

Chapter 11: The Relational Conflict Restoration Model (p. 209-231)
23. During the ten step process of the relational conflict restoration model (RCRM), it is common for couples to experience relief during step 5 of the pain-cycle articulation, when each spouse identifies their partner's way of managing pain as
a. unhealthy.
b. manageable or changeable.
c. unnecessary.
d. intentionally chosen to hurt the other

24. Which is characteristic of Step 9, forgiveness communication?
a. Examining each spouse's pain-defense-injury cycle.
b. Each spouse offering some form of grace-gift to their partner in order to alter their partner's need for defensiveness.
c. Releasing the right to defend oneself and to retaliate against previous wrongdoings.
d. All of the above.

Chapter 12: Marital Couples and Forgiveness Intervention (p. 232-254)
25. What does the Bible teach about forgiveness?
a. If you do not forgive others, God will not forgive you. (Matthew 6:14,15)
b. Genuine Christian love does not keep a record of wrongdoings. (I Corinthians 13:5)
c. Christian must forgive frequently even when offended multiple times. (Matthew 18:21-22 and Luke 17:3-4)
d. All of the above.

26. Which is NOT true about forgiveness?
a. Because forgiveness is an act of the will, you can forgive someone even if you have hurt feelings.
b. Vengeful thoughts can be controlled.
c. Spouses who choose their own offenses to confess usually pick those offenses that their partners would have chosen for them.
d. Most marital offenses are made out of malice, a desire to hurt the other person.

27. To sincerely seek true forgiveness means that the offender
a. is sorry for causing his or her spouse pain, but can't promise it won't happen again.
b. plans to stop the offensive behavior and prevent it from happening again (or, in the case of addictive behavior, get help for it).
c. is asking for empathy for being "only human."
d. is asking for patience and understanding from his or her spouse.

28. To truly forgive, the offended spouse
a. no longer has any hurt feelings about the offense.
b. must instantly feel closer to his or her spouse.
c. must no longer think about the offense.
d. makes a decision to purposely let go of the offense and not use it as a weapon in the future.

Chapter 13: Christian-Accommodative Group Interventions to Promote Forgiveness for Transgressions (p. 255-276)
29
. The author writes that, "Researchers have suggested that many individuals may be hesitant to forgive because they falsely believe forgiveness will be a form of pardoning or overlooking an offense. Clinicians should consistently seek to educate individuals about what forgiveness does and does not entail."
Which is NOT true about forgiveness?
a. Forgiveness is synonymous with reconciliation.
b. It is possible to remember an offense, but still extend forgiveness.
c. Christians believe that forgiving others is taught by Jesus Christ.
d. Even after forgiveness has been granted, the offended person can sometimes still feel anger toward the offender. This is normal and does not mean that forgiveness was not given.

Chapter 14: Promising Evidence-Based Treatments (p. 279-302)
30. In Table 14.1 at the end of this chapter, the author stated which of the following conclusions?
a. Lay Christian counseling is considered to be an empirically supported relationship factor.
b. Secular Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) is arguably the most empirically supported treatment method for children and teens who have been victims of childhood physical and sexual abuse.
c. Christian PREP (CPREP) is based upon secular PREP which has a strong empirical base.
d. All of the above.